"we must move from the habit of data classification to the mode of pattern recognition" Marshall McLuhan
these are images from Frontiers of Psychological Research (Scientific American) a sharp collection of articles on adaptive learning practices.
The sheep seen here have had their thyroids removed and no longer show either fear or a drive to learn.
"We were forced to the conclusion that the conditioned reflex described by Pavlov is not primarily an example of ordinary learning, nor a manifestation of intelligence. It is, instead, primarily a manifestation of the emotional context of behaviour. We now think of the conditioned reflex as an emotionally charged episode of behaviour bracketed betwee two primitive, stereotyped reactions: the vigilance reaction and the unconditioned reaction to the reinforcement of the conditioned stimulus..."
CHICAGO (AP) -- A surprising number of teenagers -- nearly 15 percent -- think they're going to die young, leading many to drug use, suicide attempts and other unsafe behavior, new research suggests.
The study, based on a survey of more than 20,000 kids, challenges conventional wisdom that says teens engage in risky behavior because they think they're invulnerable to harm. Instead, a sizable number of teens may take chances ''because they feel hopeless and figure that not much is at stake,'' said study author Dr. Iris Borowsky, a researcher at the University of Minnesota.
That behavior threatens to turn their fatalism into a self-fulfilling prophecy. Over seven years, kids who thought they would die early were seven time more likely than optimistic kids to be subsequently diagnosed with AIDS. They also were more likely to attempt suicide and get in fights resulting in serious injuries.
Borowsky said the magnitude of kids with a negative outlook was eye-opening.
Adolescence is ''a time of great opportunity and for such a large minority of youth to feel like they don't have a long life ahead of them was surprising,'' she said.
The study suggests a new way doctors could detect kids likely to engage in unsafe behavior and potentially help prevent it, said Dr. Jonathan Klein, a University of Rochester adolescent health expert who was not involved in the research.
''Asking about this sense of fatalism is probably a pretty important component of one of the ways we can figure out who those kids at greater risk are,'' he said.
The study appears in the July issue of Pediatrics, released Monday.
Scientists once widely believed that teenagers take risks because they underestimate bad consequences and figure ''it can't happen to me,'' the study authors say. The new research bolsters evidence refuting that thinking.
Cornell University professor Valerie Reyna said the new study presents ''an even stronger case against the invulnerability idea.''
''It's extremely important to talk about how perception of risk influences risk-taking behavior,'' said Reyna, who has done similar research.
Fatalistic kids weren't more likely than others to die during the seven-year study; there were relatively few deaths, 94 out of more than 20,000 teens.
The researchers analyzed data from a nationally representative survey of kids in grades 7 to 12 who were interviewed three times between 1995 and 2002. Of 20,594 teens interviewed in the first round, 14.7 percent said they thought they had a good chance of dying before age 35. Subsequent interviews found these fatalistic kids engaged in more risky behavior than more optimistic kids.
The study suggests some kids overestimate their risks for harm; however, it also provides evidence that some kids may have good reason for being fatalistic.
Native Americans, blacks and low-income teens -- kids who are disproportionately exposed to violence and hardship -- were much more likely than whites to believe they'd die young.
On the Net:
On May 22, Beijing censors ordered Web sites to stop reporting on the case. Four days later, television and the Internet were cut off in Yesanguan, the town where the attack occurred. The official explanation for the shutdown was as a “precaution” against lightning strikes.
Spurred by the Internet frenzy, Chinese journalists had converged on Badong County. But after censorship was imposed, local officials began screening outsiders, and some journalists seeking to report there were beaten. Mr. Wu’s blog was shut down by censors.
Even Yangtze River boat service to Badong was suspended, ostensibly because the docks needed repair, after protesters vowed to hold a demonstration there.
Last month, a group of young people abruptly appeared in the middle of downtown Beijing, carrying on their shoulders a woman wearing a mask and wrapped in white cloth. They laid her on the ground and arranged signs around her, then took pictures.
The signs read, “Anyone could be Deng Yujiao.”
Filed at 12:41 p.m. ET
NEW YORK (AP) -- ''Sopranos'' star Drea de Matteo (dray duh muh-TAY'-oh) and her longtime boyfriend, country singer Shooter Jennings, are engaged.
Amanda Silverman, publicist for de Matteo (duh muh-TAY'-oh), says Jennings proposed to the 37-year-old actress at his concert in Utica (YOO'-tuh-kah), N.Y., last Thursday.
Silverman says Jennings took de Matteo (duh muh-TAY'-oh) by surprise when he called her to the stage to pop the question.
The couple have an 18-month-old daughter, Alabama.
In an update on Twitter, Jennings says: ''I'm a lucky man. I'll never forget Utica (YOO'-tuh-kah).''